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Gujarat

Gujarat lies in western India and spreads in the area of 196,024 square kilometres. It is the fifth-largest state of the country. It has been termed with various nicknames such as the ‘Boston of India’, ‘Manchester of India’, etc. for its unprecedented growth in past decades. 

Gujarat draws its name from the Gurjara (supposedly a subtribe of the Huns), who ruled the area during the 8th and 9th centuries CE. The state assumed its present form in 1960, when the former Bombay state was divided between Maharashtra and Gujarat on the basis of language.

The state is bounded primarily by Pakistan to the northwest and by the Indian states of Rajasthan to the north, Madhya Pradesh to the east, and Maharashtra to the southeast. Gujarat also shares a small segment of its southeastern border with the Indian union territory of Dadra and Nagar Haveli, and, together with the Arabian Sea, it surrounds the territory of Daman and Diu. The capital is Gandhinagar, on the outskirts of the north-central city of Ahmadabad (Ahmedabad)—the former capital, the largest city in the state, and one of the most-important textile centres in India. It was in Ahmadabad that Mohandas (Mahatma) Gandhi built his Sabarmati ashram as a headquarters for his campaigns against British rule of India.

Historical Places :
Some historical places of Gujrat are

  • Laxmi Vilas Palace,
  • Rani Ka Vav
  • Dholavira
  • Madhera Sun Temple
  • Diu Fort
  • Sidi Saiyyed Mosque
  • Prag Mahal
  • Jain Temple 
  • Aaina Mahal palace
  • Sabarmati Ashram
  • Kirti Mandir
  • Bhadra Fort and Teen Darwaza
  • Upekot Fort
  • Panikota Fort 
  • Nilambag Palace
  • Adalaj Stepwell
  • Mohabbat Maqbara etc.

Culture :
Gujarat is a flourishing state with cultural diversity. The  state of Gujarat is popular in music because of its contributions. A number of ragas emerged in this state such as Khambavati (from Khambhat, Cambay), Gujaqri Todi Bilaval (from Veraval), Sorathi, (from Sorath), Lati and Ahiri. It is said that the legendary musicians Baiju Bawra and Tana Riri also belong to this state. Pure form of Charans and Gadhavis folk music is still prevalent here. Besides classical and folk music, Gujarat has produced several folk instruments like Jantar, Bungal, Turi, String type Ravan Hattho and more.

Embroidery, printing, wood carving, jewelry and stone work are most famous arts and crafts of Gujarat whose beauty is renowned worldwide. Patola silk, often termed as the queens of all silks, is used to make the finest handwoven sarees. The Surat based ‘zari’ industry is popular throughout the world for its embroidery work. 

Gujarat is known round the world for its various fairs and festivals. Navarathri is the most colorful and prominent festival of the State. A circular dance performed by women around an earthenware pot called a ‘Garbo’ filled with water. 

Another popular festival is Makkar Sankrati also known as Uttarayan in Gujarat. The International Kite Festival is one of the most colorful events in Gujarat when whole the sky is filled with the colorful kites all around. Some of the other popular fairs and festivals of Gujarat are Trinetreshwer Mahadev Fair, Rathyatra, Holi, Deepawali, Bhadra Purnima Fair, Mahadev Fair, Shamlaji Melo and many more.

Language :
The principal language of Gujarat is ‘Gujarati’ and other languages spoken are Hindi and English. People of North Gujarat speak ‘northern Gujarati’, Central Gujarat speaks ‘Charotari’, Saurashtra speaks ‘Kathiawadi’ , South Gujarat speaks ‘Surti’ and Kutchh speaks ‘Kutchi.’

Major Cities :
Gandhinagar, Ahmedabad, Surat, Baroda, Rajkot, Vabnagar, Gandhinagar, Jamnagar, Nadiad, Morvi, Varuch, Anklesvar, Patan, Palanpur, Godhra, Mahesana, Probandar, Gandhidham, Bhuj are some major cities of Gujarat. 

Attractive Places :

Some of the tourists’ puller destinations of Gujrat are- Somnath Temple, Gir National Park, Rani ki Vab Patan, Champaner-Pavagadh Archaeological Park, Lothal, Ahmedpur Mandvi Beach, Chorwad Beach, Wild Ass Sanctuary, Laxmi Vilas Palace, Saputara Hill Station, Ahmedabad, Bhuj, Dwarka, Gonda, Junagarh, Kutch, Modhera, Palitana, Patan, Porbandar, Rajkot, Surat, Vadodara etc.

Some Famous personalities:

  • Mahatma Gandhi
  • Vallabhbhai Patel
  • Morarji Desai
  • Narsing Mehta
  • Dhirubhai Ambani
  • Dadabhai Naoroji
  • Kalyan Ji Anand Ji

Communication :
The colourful city of Gujarat can be reached by every mode of transport - roadways, railways, airways and via sea. 

Roadways-
For travelling within the state multiple bus services are started by Gujarat State Road Transport Corporation (GSRTC). Following are the bus services provided by Gujarat State Road Transport Corporation (GSRTC):

  1. Mofussil Services: Connects major cities, towns and villages within Gujarat.
  2. Intercity Bus Services: Connects major cities of Gujarat- Ahmedabad, Surat, Veraval, Vapi, Vadodara (Baroda) and Rajkot
  3. Interstate Bus Services: Connects Gujarat with neighbouring states- Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra and Rajasthan.

Railways-
Railway network of Gujarat connects with every state of India. Surat railway station, Ahmedabad Railway Station, Rajkot Railway Station and Vadodara Railway Station are the busiest railway stations in Gujarat. In fact, Vadodara Railway Station is the one of the busiest railway station in India because it is a part of Delhi-Mumbai railway line.

Airways-
Important airports in Gujarat are:

  • Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel International Airport, Ahmedabad
  • Surat Airport
  • Bhavnagar Airport
  • Deesa airport
  • Kandla Airport (Gandhidham)
  • Porbandar Airport
  • Rajkot Airport
  • Harni Airport – Integrated Terminal Airport
  • Bhuj Airport
  • Mehsana Airport

Waterways-
Kandla Port in Gujarat is the largest port that is serving the Western side of India. Port of Navlakhi, Port of Magdalla, Port Pipavav, Port of Porbandar, Port of Veraval and the privately owned Mundra Port are the major ports of Gujarat.

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